dimarts, 7 de desembre de 2010

Unique Australian traits

1. Australian English incorporates several uniquely Australian terms, such as outback to refer to remote regional areas, walkabout to refer to a long journey of uncertain length and bush to refer to native forested areas.
2. Fair dinkum can mean are you telling me the truth?, or this is the truth!, or even this is ridiculous! depending on context.  G'day is well known as a stereotypical Australian greeting. (It is worth noting that "G'day" is not quite synonymous with "good day", and is never used as an expression for "farewell".) 
3. Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been incorporated into Australian English, mainly as names for places, flora and fauna (e.g. Dingo, kangaroo). Beyond that, very few terms have been adopted into the wider language. A notable exception is Cooee (a musical call which travels long distances in the bush and is used to say 'is there anyone there?'). Though often thought of as an Aboriginal word, Didgeridoo/Didjeridu (a well known wooden musical instrument) is actually an onomatopoeic term coined by an English settler.
4. Australian English has a unique set of diminutives formed by adding -o or -ie to the ends of (often abbreviated words). There does not appear to be any particular pattern to which of these suffixes is used. Examples with the -o ending include abo (aborigine - now considered very offensive), arvo (afternoon), servo (service station) and ambo (ambulance officer). Examples of the -ie ending include barbie (barbeque), bikkie (biscuit) and blowie (blowfly). Occasionally, a -za diminutive is used, usually for personal names. Barry becomes Bazza, Karen becomes Kazza and Sharon becomes Shazza.
5. A substantial collection of unusual words are in common spoken usage - e.g. "dacks" (trousers), "dag" (unfashionable person), "ute" (a utility  truck). An even larger vocabulary is derived from recognisable words with entirely new meanings - "to bag" (to criticise), "blue" (either a fight or heated argument, or an embarrassing mistake), "crook" (unwell, also unfair), "to wag" (to play truant), "cactus" (non-functional), "cut" (angry) and especially "root" (a euphemism for sexual intercourse, which has caused social embarrassment for American women who innocently declare that they "root" for a particular sports team). Iin Australia fanny is a slang term for a vagina.

Australian English vocabulary


• ace - excellent, very good

• aggro – (adj) aggressive; (n) aggravation

• apples, she's - everything is all right;

• arvo – short for afternoon; in use since the 1950s


• bag - (v) to denigrate; (n) an ugly woman;

• bang sexual intercourse

• beaut – (adj) great, fantastic, terrific; in use since the 1910s (n);

• beauty – exclamation showing approval, often spelt as bewdy

• bickie – biscuit.

• big bickies – lots of money

• bizzo - business ("Mind your own bizzo.")

• bloody oath - that's certainly true;

• blue an embarrassing mistake (for example, "I've made a blue.")

• bodgy - of inferior quality

• bog in - to attack a meal with enthusiasm

• bottler - something excellent

• buggered - tired. "I'm feeling buggered."

• buttsucker - someone who smokes cigarettes


• cackleberry - egg

• chook - a chicken

• Chrissie - Christmas

• chunder - vomit. "I had a chunder.".

• come a gutser - make a bad mistake, have an accident

• cossie, cozzie - swimming costume, bathers

• cranky - in a bad mood, angry

• crunk - to get drunk

• cut – angry or upset


• dag an unfashionable or uncool person, equivalent to "geek" or "dork".

• deso - the designated driver on a night out.. I can't, I'm the deso'

• dinger - condom

• dinkum – honest, genuine, real Fair dinkum means "fair and square", i.e. honest; true; real; genuine; can be shortened to dinks

• docket - a bill, receipt

• doco - documentary

• drongo - foolish person

• dunny – toilet derro - a term for idiot ,. 'What a derro'

E • earbashing - nagging, non-stop chatter

F • footpath – any well-used walkway, sidewalk or pavement.

• franger - condom

G • g'day – good day, hello;

• good onya - good for you, well done

H • hooroo - goodbye

J • jaded- feeling hungover or suffering the after effects of drugs

L • lingo – language or dialect

• lippy - lipstick

N • no worries or nurries – you're welcome; no problem; that's all right;

• norgs - tits

O • okey-dokey – OK

• onya - a congratulatory term


• paro/parro/ pissed - drunk

• pig's arse – I don't agree with you

• porker - a lie, "he's tellin porkers"

• pov or povo – cheap looking; from poverty

• preggers, preggo - pregnant

• pissing down – raining heavy

• Poof, poofter - homosexual, gay or a fag

Q • quack - a doctor. "I have to visit the quack."

• quid, make a - earn a living


• rage - party

• rage on - to continue partying - "we raged on until 3am"

• rapt - pleased, delighted

• ratshit – broken, not working properly; extremely drunk

• reckon - Giving your opinion. ("It's hot, don't you reckon?"

• rego - vehicle registration

• ridgy-didge - original, genuine

• righto - okay or that's right. Can also be said as rightio.

• root - slang term for sex

• ropeable - very angry

• rubbish - (verb) to criticise


• scrag an unattractive woman

• servo - service station (i.e. petrol station / gas station)

• sheila - woman.

• sherbet - beer. As in "going to to the pub for a couple of sherbets"

• stella - good, pleasing, thanks

• stoked - very pleased

• stuffed – exhausted, tired

• sweet – fine, good


• tinny - a can of beer

• tinny, tin-arsed - lucky

• toey - nervous, distracted;

• togs - swimming costume, bathers

U • unco - clumsy, uncoordinated

• uni - university

• unit - flat, apartment

• up the duff - pregnant (i.e., my sheila's up the duff)


• wag –to play truant

• whinge - complain; similar to crying

• wog - flu or trivial illness.

Y • yabber - talk (a lot)

• yarn - (verb) to talk

dilluns, 1 de novembre de 2010



Orange juice and breakfast cereals are

Readily available in the dining room

Please tick which of the following you would like

Included in your full English breakfast or tick

One of the lighter options available

Thank you

Full English

Grilled sausage

2 rashers of grilled bacon

Fried egg

Fried bread


Grilled fresh tomatoes

Tinned tomatoes

Baked beans

Lighter options

Scrambled eggs on toast

Poached eggs on toast

Baked beans on toast

Tinned tomatoes on toast

Catalan menu in English

Catalan Appetizers, Snacks and Tapas

• Amanida = Catalan salad
• Cigales a l’all = Garlic scampi
• Croquetes amb xamfaina = Vegetable pastries
• Gambes amb salsa romesco = Prawns in a spicy sauce dip
• Pa amb tomaquet = Bread and tomato appetizers
• Patates braves = Potatoes in spicy sauce
• Xató = Tarragona-style salad

Catalan Rice, Pasta Dishes and Soups

• Arròs a la catalana = Catalan-style rice
• Arròs amb crosta = Oven-browned rice
• Arròs amb faves = Rice with broad beans
• Arròs negre amb allioli = Black rice with garlic and oil sauce
• Canelons a la catalana = Catalan-style cannelloni
• Fideus a la catalana = Spicy spaghetti with cured meats
• Fideus amb mariscs = Thin spaghetti with seafood
• Fideuà = Paella with pasta and fish
• Escudella a la catalana = Chickpea soup
• Sopa de musclos = Mussel soup

Catalan Meat and Fowl Recipes

• Rostit de porc a la catalana = Oven-roasted fillet of pork
• Conill a la tarraconenca = Rabbit and chocolate casserole
• Conill amb cargols = Rabbit with snails
• Costelles al forn = Oven-roasted pork spare-ribs
• Escudella i carn d'olla = Mixed boiled meats with rice and broth soup
• Estofat de bou = Beef stew with chocolate
• Fricandó = Stewed meat and vegetables
• Mar i terra = Surf-and-turf: chicken with lobster and chocolate
• Paella mixta= Catalan-style paella
• Gall d’indi a la catalana = Stuffed turkey
• Perdiu amb cols = Partridges in cabbage parcels
• Pollastre amb pebrots = Chicken with small green peppers
• Pollastre amb xamfaina = Chicken with aubergines and sweet peppers
• Porc amb musclos = Pork with mussels

Catalan Fish, Shellfish and Seafood

• Anguila a l’all i pebre = Stewed eels
• Bacallà amb xamfaina = Cod with eggplant and vegetables
• Cap roig amb salsa d’all = Garlic scorpion fish
• Cargols a la llauna = Snails au gratin
• Cargols a la potarrallada = Grilled snails
• Orada a la sal = Gilthead in salt
• Esqueixada de bacallà = Dried codfish salad
• Sípia amb rovellons = Cuttlefish with mushrooms
• Llagosta a la Costa Brava = Lobster in chocolate-flavored picada
• Musclos farcits = Stuffed mussels
• Orada a la sal = Sea bream in a salt crust
• Pataco = Fresh tuna with clams and vegetables
• Rap en salsa d’ametlles = Anglerfish in almond sauce
• Suquet de peix amb allioli = Mixed fish casserole with alioli sauce
• Zarzuela = Mixed seafood stew

Catalan Egg and Vegetables Recipes

• Albergínia a la catalana =Aubergines with walnuts
• Cols a la catalana = Cabbage in spicy sauce
• Escalivada = Oven-baked vegetable mix
• Espinacs a la catalana / Espinacs amb passes i pinyons = Spinach with raisins and pine nuts
• Faves al tombet = Broad beans with lettuce
• Faves a la catalana = Broad beans with mixed cured meats
• Panadons amb espinacs = Spinach parcels
• Rovellons a la brasa = Grilled mushrooms
• Truita de patates = Open omelette with potatoes
• Truita de tomàquets i pebrots = Tomato and sweet pepper open omelette

Catalan Cakes, Sweets and Desserts

• Crema catalana / Crema de Sant Josep = Oven-baked vanilla custard topped with caramelized sugar
• Ensaimades = Sweet twists
• Granissat = Lemon water-ice
• Mel i mató = Honey and soft cheese
• Menjar blanc = Almond blancmange

diumenge, 24 d’octubre de 2010

Exercises on American English


Exercise on prepositions: time, place and direction

Exercise on prepositions: time, place and direction

Exercises on verbal tenses

1. Exercises on Simple present and present continuous
2. Exercises on Simple past and past continuous
3. Exercises on Simple past and present perfect
4. Exercises on will-going to
5. Exercises on simple past and past perfect

Grammar Exercises - Articles

You can try to do exercises 1,2 and 3

dimarts, 23 de febrer de 2010

Yorkshire Pudding

Yorkshire Pudding

3 cups sifted flour
1/4 teaspoon salt
3 eggs
1 cup milk

Sift flour and salt together. Beat eggs until light and add sifted ingredients.Add milk gradually and beat two minutes with rotary egg beater. Prepare pudding to pour into pan 30 minutes before beef has finished roasting. Place beef to one side of roasting pan and pour off small about of fat. Grease an oblong pan with drippings. Pour Yorkshire Pudding mixture into pan. Return to oven and cook about 30 minutes.Cut into squares and serve with roast beef.

Steak and Kidney Pie

Steak and Kidney Pie

1 Kidney, beef
4 tablespoons Shortening
2 Onion; chopped
2 pounds Round steak; cubed
1 1/2 tablespoons Worcester sauce
1/2 teaspoon Salt
1/2 teaspoon Pepper
2 tablespoons Butter; softened
2 tablespoons Flour
2 tablespoons Parsley; minced
1 teaspoon Rosemary
1 teaspoon Oregano
1 cup Flour; + 2 teaspoons
1/4 teaspoon Salt
1/3 cup Shortening
2 tablespoons water, cold

Wash the kidney, remove membranes and fat, and cut kidney in 1" cubes. Cube the steak into 1" cubes. Melt the shortening in a heavy pot. Add the onions and cook, stirring often, until well browned. Add the steak and kidneys. When the meat is browned on all sides, pour on 2 cups of boiling water, Worcester, salt, and pepper. Cove and cook over a very low heat for 1 1/2 hours, or until the steak is tender. Preheat the oven to 400 F. Blend the butter with the flour to make a beurre manie. Drop small pellets of this paste into the sauce and stir to thicken it. Put meat and sauce into a deep pie plate and sprinkle with parsley. If you wish to use a pastry topping, roll out the dough and cover the pie plate. Slash the top, crimp the edges, and bake about 30 minutes, or until well browned. Pastry: Mix the flour and salt. Cut in the shortening with a pastry blender. Combine lightly only until the mixture resembles coarse meal or very tine peas; its texture will not be uniform but will contain crumbs and small bits and pieces. Sprinkle water over the flour mixture, a tablespoon at a time, and mix lightly with a fork, using only enough water so that the pastry will hold together when pressed gently into a ball.

Mixed Grill

Mixed Grill

Serves 4
4 lambs kidneys (skinned and halved)
4 lamb chops
1 lb (45og) of rump steak cut into 4 pieces
4 bacon rashers
4 sausages
half lb (225g) black pudding cut into 4 pieces
2 tablespoons of olive oil
4 tomatoes halved
4 large mushrooms (peeled and sliced)

IPreheat oven to (150 C), (300 F), Gas Mark 2
1) Brush the kidney,lamb chops, and steak with olive oil, season with
salt and pepper
2) Heat grill, land place sausages and kidneys on a freshly cleaned grill pan
3) Grill for 10 minutes, turn regularly, put in oven
4) Grill Lamb chops and rashers for 5 minutes on each side,

  • put in oven
    5) Grill the steak and black pudding for 5 minutes on each side, put in oven
    6) Brush tomatoes and mushroom with some of the juices from the meat
    7) Grill for 3 minutes on each side, season and add to oven for 1 minute
    8) Remove dish from oven and cover with hot meat juices from the grill pan
    9) Serve immediately
  • dimarts, 19 de gener de 2010

    Cornish Pasty


    2 cups flour
    pinch of salt
    1/3 - 1/2 cup water

    Mix flour and lard, then add salt and water. Work into smooth dough and rest under a cover for 30 min. Meanwhile, prepare the filling:

    1/4 lb. beef or chicken liver
    1 rib celery 1/2 lb.
    1 small carrot salt & pepper
    1 small turnip
    2 raw potatoes
    1 egg, beaten
    1 small onion


    Chop liver and mix with beef. Add salt and pepper and let rest for 10-20 minutes. Peel onion and potatoes, carrot and turnip; slice thinly, and blanch in boiling water for 2-3 minutes with thinly sliced celery. Drain and season with salt & pepper. Roll out dough to 1/8 inch thickness; cut into 3 large squares. Put a layer of vegetables on half of each square and top it with meat mixture. Brush edges of dough with egg and fold plain half over the meat. Pinch edges together tightly. Bake for 1 hour: first for 2-3 min. at 400 degrees, then at 325 degrees for 1 hour.